目录

2020.06.07-瑞狮围

目录
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瑞狮围,惠州市市级文物保护单位,位于惠阳区秋长镇周田村,是较有代表的客家古民居建筑之一。该民居深藏于大山之中,虽三面环山,但视野开阔,环境十分优美。就其结构、用材及分布特点来看,它是一座非常适合客家族人生活、居住的典型围屋。

瑞狮围建于清光绪六年(1880) ,砖、石、木混合式构架,单檐,硬山顶建筑,墙体用三门,中间(堂屋)为大门(正门),左右两侧横屋为小门(侧门),面积约4000平方米。围屋前有禾坪,外开三门以石、木构件修造,麻石质地门框,制作简练、实用,门为实木板门,横披、中槛攒边门;石质门框横披正面用青石阳雕“瑞狮围"三大字,字体清秀但苍劲有力。室内地面部分用青砖铺设,部分为灰土地面,地面为常见的方砖十字缝。

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围屋成中轴对称,中轴建筑为方形三堂屋,堂与堂之间以天井相隔,上敞堂为祖公堂,中堂为议事厅,下敞堂进深小,呈长方形,为门厅。左右横屋(生活、居住用房)和上堂外墙相连成围,出于防御的需要,门厅两边各建高出横屋和堂屋的碉楼,碉楼凸出檐墙数米。中厅置一屏门,制作略为简单,外表上红漆,无其它装饰;上敞堂专门设有供族人用于拜祭祖宗的祭台、神龛,神龛制作考究,雕刻复杂、精细,显得异常精美。壁画及木雕屏风等图案多以自然花草及福、禄、寿、喜为题材,从中亦显文雅、清高。屋面装饰清水脊,围楼顶层周围建成通廊墙布满透风,外置“锅耳”状山墙,并有卷草纹、葫芦状饰物装饰。整个围屋设计考究,四周檐墙上建女儿墙,檐额用青砖砌作四层菱角牙子,室内结构布局合理,实用性强。

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